PESCI PIATTI NEL PIATTO (parte 1)

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Cassetta di rombetti lisci dell’imbarcazione Eragon

Partecipiamo almeno due volte a settimana all’asta del Mercato Ittico di San Benedetto del Tronto, eppure non smettiamo mai di meravigliarci dell’incredibile diversità di prodotti che il mare Adriatico ci offre. La tecnica di pesca più usata, lo strascico, permette infatti un’ampia varietà di catture, e non tutte le specie pescate hanno poi un grande valore commerciale nei mercati nazionali, molte sono vendute quasi esclusivamente nei mercati locali.

E’ anche notevole che specie diverse abbiano trovato degli sviluppi evolutivi così simili. Pensiamo ad esempio ai pesci piatti, che hanno una forma schiacciata, regolarmente pescati nel nostro mare, genericamente definiti “pesci piatti”. Tra questi ci sono:

Sogliola

Rombo chiodato

Rombo liscio

Passera

Zanchetta

Razza

soglioleNegli ultimi due anni (2013-2014) i pescatori del medio Adriatico hanno registrato un boom di catture di sogliole, anche se in questo stesso biennio il prezzo all’ingrosso è crollato. Era comune acquistare sogliole grandi (da 250g in su) a meno di 10€/kg, le piccole a meno di 4€/kg. Nel frattempo si è registrato un calo delle importazioni, come è normale, ma solo del 2%, segno che la richiesta è comunque molto alta. Nel 2015 i prezzi sono decisamente aumentati, ma l’offerta è comunque sufficiente a soddisfare la richiesta dei nostri clienti; per quanto ci riguarda, non acquistiamo sogliole di importazioni da quasi un decennio, quando l’offerta di prodotto locale era scarsissima, quasi nulla.

Le sogliole sono una tale risorsa per i nostri pescatori che sono la specie bersaglio di imbarcazioni specifiche dette “rapidi” o appunto “sfogliare” (“sfoglia” è il nome dialettale che si usa nell’Adriatico centrale per definire la sogliola). Anche rombi e rombetti sono spesso pescati dalle stesse imbarcazioni.

Sogliola, rombo, sono Pleuronettiformi, “nuotano di lato”, la prima ha l’occhio superiore più avanzato rispetto a quello inferiore e non ha costole, il rombo ha gli occhi allineati e ha costole; nel caso di esemplari femmine la gabbia toracica è più grande, e quindi sono meno pregiate dal punto di vista gastronomico dei maschi perché la parte edibile è minore; a volte nelle femmine si trovano le sacche delle uova, che sono molto buone e tipiche della cucina sambenedettese. *

Le sogliole nostrane, del genere Solea, hanno gli occhi sul lato destro del corpo, proprio come la Passera pianuzza (da non confondere con la zanchetta romana), che generalmente è rara nei nostri mari e non particolarmente pregiata dal punto di vista commerciale, anche se eccellente in cucina, con carni molto sode e una pelle spessa che evita che il pesce si rompa in cottura. La sogliola ha mille applicazioni in cucina, se è grande può essere cotta in forno, o in guazzetto, le proteine che rilascia legano bene i fondi di cottura. Una ricetta tipica sambenedettese è la sogliola alla marinara, che viene cotta con pochissimo brodo di pesce e un po’ di succo di limone; il brodo ritirandosi e legandosi con le proteine rilasciate dal pesce diventa quasi una salsa, che viene servita con il pesce stesso, e serve da intingolo per il pane. Un tempo era tradizione usare le sogliole piccolissime (che in sambenedettese si chiamano “magnacucciòle”, “mangia-vongole”) per le fritture, ma ora la politica delle taglie minime commercializzabili ha vietato questa pratica: la sogliola per essere commercializzata deve essere almeno di 20cm.

pesci piatti

La differenza tra il rombo liscio (in alto) e il rombo chiodato (in basso)

Il rombo chiodato è il re della cucina di mare. Raro, pregiatissimo e costosissimo, ha la caratteristica di non avere squame ma placche ossee sulla pelle, i “chiodi”. Se non vengono eviscerati sopravvivono a lungo fuori dall’acqua, ed è comune la pratica di graziarli con un colpo secco in mezzo agli occhi. Se ne avete l’opportunità, acquistate quelli pescati con le retine da posta, che arrivano perfettamente integri, e se ci sono esemplari femmine potete recuperare le sacche delle uova. Gli esemplari più buoni sono quelli tra i 1,5kg e i 3kg, se ne trovano anche di più grandi, ma a mio avviso le carni diventano un po’ troppo sode e perdono un po’ di delicatezza. Se vi capita di mangiarlo intero al forno, con un po’ di odori, assaggiate le parti vicino alle lische laterali, vi sembrerà di mangiare porchetta, e concedere al vostro ospite d’onore la guancia, in particolare quella sinistra. Abbandonate per un attimo il galateo e soffermatevi a succhiare le ossa della spina dorsale. Evitate di mangiarlo sfilettato, la parte più buona sono proprio le lische, e la pelle.

Sebbene possa sembrare grasso è in realtà molto magro, meno di 1,5g di grasso per 100g.

soasiSuo cugino, il rombo liscio, o soaso, è più piccolo e meno caro, ma molto buono, e date le dimensioni se ne può cuocere uno a persona.

Non ha le placche ossee, e quindi è facilmente distinguibile dal rombo chiodato, che costa il doppio.

Nella seconda parte, zanchette e razze

*(per valutare la posizione degli occhi, mettere il pesce di lato con il ventre verso il basso)

Alberto Torquati

FONTI:

http://www.c2p3.it/Documenti-e-Ricerche/ArtMID/676/ArticleID/1361/Tendenze-Ittico-timida-crescita-dei-consumi-domestici-di-prodotti-ittico-Segni-positivi-anche-per-l%E2%80%99export

http://www.ittiologia.it/images/Presentazioni/Flash/Pleuronettiformi.swf

http://www.federcoopesca.it/normative/1284631172.pdf

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